Schisms within the ruling family were apparent before Ahmad ibn Said's death in 1783 and were later manifest with the division of the family into two main lines, the Sultan ibn Ahmad Al Said (r.
1792–1806) line controlling the maritime state, with nominal control over the entire country; and the Qais branch, with authority over the Al Batinah and Ar Rustaq areas.
Like its predecessors, Al Said dynastic rule has been characterized by a history of internecine family struggle, fratricide, and usurpation.
Apart from threats within the ruling family, there was the omnipresent challenge from the independent tribes of the interior who rejected the authority of the sultan, recognizing the imam as the sole legitimate leader and pressing, by resort to arms, for the restoration of the imamate.
The Yarubid recaptured Muscat from the Portuguese in 1650 after a colonial presence on the northeastern coast of Oman dating to 1508.
The population of Muscat fell from 55,000 to 8,000 between the 1850s and 1870s.
Most of the overseas possessions were seized by the United Kingdom and by 1850 Oman was an isolated and poor area of the world.
This influential control was most likely exerted from a coastal center such as Sohar. Because they needed to control the Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians established garrisons in Oman. D, the Sassanids succeeded the Parthians and held the area until the rise of Islam four centuries later.
This agricultural and military contact gave people exposure to Persian culture, as reflected in certain irrigation techniques still used in Oman.