The rise in prenatal sex selection in certain parts of the world, specifically India and East Asia, can be observed via the Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB).The SRB measures male births per 100 female births, and a rate of 102-106 is considered normal by most standards according to the United Nations Population Fund.Sexual harassment against the girl child is prevalent both in the workplace and at school.Girl children who are employed as domestic workers or as industrial laborers are vulnerable to sexual harassment and exploitation by their employers.
Forced and child marriages entrap women and young girls in relationships that deprive them of their basic human rights.
Numerous counties and organizations, including the United States and the United Nations, have monitored and begun initiatives to end the practices.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) defines a child as: a “human being below the age of 18 years, unless under the law applicable to that child, majority is attained earlier.” Further, the Convention defines trafficking as: “the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, or fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation.
Girl children in war zones and conflict areas too often become dehumanized pawns, to be systematically raped and tortured as a tactical “message” of war; forced into sexual slavery by soldiers or opportunists; forced into pregnancy, abortion, or sterilization as a means of ethnic cleansing; wounded; maimed; mutilated; murdered; infected with HIV or STIs; orphaned; displaced.
Governmental and international organizations, as well as NGOs, have identified the problems and are attempting to correct and monitor the situations.