Neurobiologist Robert Sapolsky constructed a reproductive spectrum with opposite poles being tournament species, in which males compete fiercely for reproductive privileges with females, and pair bond arrangements, in which a male and female will bond for life.
These species-particular behavior patterns provide a context for aspects of human reproduction, including dating.
Arrest warrants were issued against her relatives on November 18 for gang-rape and forced miscarriage.
The woman's mother has subsequently claimed her husband and son are innocent, saying the allegations were made under Gayasuddin's influence.
A 21-year-old woman has claimed she was gang-raped by her father, brother and uncles after eloping with her lover in India.
The woman ran away with her 32-year-old lover, named locally as Gayasuddin, twice in July and then again in October.
As humans societies have evolved from hunter-gatherers into civilized societies, there have been substantial changes in relations between men and women, with perhaps one of a few remaining biological constants being that both adult women and men must have sexual intercourse for human procreation to happen.
Humans have been compared to other species in terms of sexual behavior.
After fleeing with Gayasuddin, already a father-of-three, in October she was tracked to a nursing home.
Thus, the concept of marriage is changing widely in many countries.
Historically, marriages in most societies were arranged by parents and older relatives with the goal not being love but legacy and "economic stability and political alliances", according to anthropologists.
These people will have dates on a regular basis, and they may or may not be having sexual relations.
This period of courtship is sometimes seen as a precursor to engagement.